Art Nouveau's international style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts. It was most popular between 1890 and 1910. Art Nouveau was a reaction to the academic art, eclecticism, and historicism of 19th-century architecture and decoration that favored fine art, such as paintings and sculptures, over applied art. It was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants, flowers, and whiplash forms. Other defining characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry and curving lines, and modern materials, such as iron pillars, sculpted and curved in naturalistic designs. Art Nouveau was known under the names of Jugendstil in Germany, Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands, and Modern Style in Great Britain. It also inspired the psychedelic art of the 1960s.
- Vibrant colors such as greens, browns, yellows, and gold
- Feminine figures
- Plants such as cyclamen, iris, orchid, thistle, mistletoe, holly, water lily
- Animals such as swans, peacocks, dragonflies, and butterflies.
- Whiplash curves: asymmetrical, curved lines in an S shape, frequently incorporated into natural forms such as women's hair and the stems of plants.
- Alphonse Mucha
- Gustav Klimt
- Antoni Gaudí
- Charles Rennie Mackintosh
- Émile Gallé
- René Lalique
- Aubrey Beardsley
- Henry van de Velde
- Victor Horta
- Louis Comfort Tiffany
- Hector Guimard
Casa Milá, Barcelona, by Antoni Gaudí, 1905–10.
Museum of Applied Arts, Budapest
Mucha, Alphonse: Zodiac
Zodiac, colour lithograph by Alphonse Mucha, 1896; in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California.
“Pond Lily” table lamp, model no. 344, by Louis Comfort Tiffany, 1900–10; in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.